These accusations were accepted at court, and Dioscorus obtained an imperial edict (dated by Tillemont Mar 30, 449) that as a disturber of the peace of the church Theodoret should keep to his own diocese. The first of these was by Theodoret. p. 177). (Bell), and by Blomfield Jackson in Lib. p. 220). 56) and Leontius of Byzantius (art. of Cyrrhus, in behalf of Diodorus and Theodorus, champions of God." eccl. commented on by him are the Epistles of St. Paul, including that to the Hebrews. 4, de Sectis ) (cf. The imperial commissioners now declared that all doubt had been removed and that Theodoret should now receive back his bishopric. Theodoretus (2) , bp. 3:3. (5) Fifteen additional letters of Theodoret. xv. The succession of Dioscorus to Cyril's patriarchal throne led to fresh trials for Theodoret. of Post-Nicene Fathers. Of these bp. Their respective titles indicate the line adopted in each. Prolegomena and extracts from Commentaries on the Psalms. (1) The former, in five books, was intended to form a continuation of that of Eusebius. 44; Baluz. he cried. His maternal grandmother was a lady of landed property ( Relig. For the details of the conflict see CYRILLUS OF ALEXANDRIA; PROCLUS; RABBULAS; IBAS. was added after Sirmond's death by his fellow-Jesuit, J. Garnier (Paris, 1684), containing an auctarium, comprising fragments of commentaries and sermons and some additional letters, together with Garnier's 5 learned but most one-sided dissertations on (1) the life, (2) the writings, (3) the faith of Theodoret, (4) on the fifth general council, and (5) the cause of Theodoret and the Orientals. He was unwearied in preaching, and his acquaintance with the Syrian vernacular enabled him to reach the poorest and most ignorant. The hall re-echoed with cries and counter-cries which interrupted all proceedings. trans. All was now changed. Ḟeodorit Kẏrskij 393-466. 597–599). Theodoret of Cyrus- “He is referring to Ptolemy Philopater.” St. Jerome- "Ptolemy Philadelphus, the second king of Egypt. on Ps. An appeal to the West, forbidden him in person by Theodosius, was now prosecuted by letter, which, though addressed to Leo individually, was really meant for the bishops of the West assembled in the synod, to which he begs his cause may be submitted ( Mém. (Gal. trans. The Græcarum Affectionum Curatio, the Discourse on Charity, and the De Providentia. After serving as a lector, he withdrew to a monastery in 416. (Paris, 1642 ), by the Jesuit Jac. With considerable trouble he obtained from Palestine relics of prophets, apostles, and martyrs, for the greater glory of a church he had built ( Relig. iii. But we have, in a Latin version, a long letter addressed to the followers of Nestorius at Constantinople, declaring his adherence to the orthodox faith, although he had felt unable to acquiesce in the condemnation of Nestorius, not believing that the doctrines ascribed to him were actually held by him (Baluz. Bright ( Hist. v. pp. He played a pivotal role in several 5th-century Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. 619–624). It is accepted by Photius ( Cod. p. 1191, vol. His personal share in it began towards the end of 430, with the receipt by John, the patriarch of Antioch, of the letters of Celestine and Cyril, relative to the condemnation of the doctrines of Nestorius obtained by the Western bishops in Aug. 429. 766, c. 61). is back-ordered. N. Ghibokowski, The Blessed Theodoret, bp. He was, however, precluded from accepting the terms of peace which John and others were increasingly inclined to acquiesce in, by the demand that he should anathematize the doctrine of Nestorius and Nestorius himself. c. 95, 662, 801), accepted the orthodoxy of Cyril's letter and regarded it as a recantation of his obnoxious twelve articles, but would not pronounce an anathema on Nestorius. On July 29, 450, Theodosius II. This was succeeded by another ed. To this edition our references are made. On their way home from Ephesus the Orientals, Theodoret among them, held a synod at Tarsus and renewed the sentence of deposition on Cyril in conjunction with the seven orthodox deputies to Theodosius II., which they published in a circular letter. Theodoret emerges in this work as a measured commentator and balanced exponent of his school's hermeneutical and theological principles. One by one the recalcitrant prelates yielded, except Alexander and some others. Only a few fragments remain. Theodoret of Cyrus (The Early Church Fathers) Istvan Pasztori Kupan The larger part of Theodoret of Cyrus' existant body of work still remains untranslated, and this lack provides a fragmented representation of his thought and has lead to his misrepresentation by ancient, medieval and some modern scholars. "often," he writes, "have I shed my blood; often have I been stoned; nay, brought down before my time to the very gates of death." The see was that of Cyrus, or more properly Cyrrhus, the chief city of a district of the province of Euphratensis, called after it Cyrrhestica, an extensive fertile plain between the spurs of the Amanus and the river Euphrates, intersected by mountain ranges. The high-handed behaviour of the patriarchs of Rome and Alexandria towards the bp. based on it, with additions and corrections by Lud. Lightfoot writes, "His commentaries on St. Paul are superior to his other exegetical writings, and have been assigned the palm over all patristic expositions of Scripture. The whole assembly raised the cry that Theodoret was worthy of his throne, and that the church must receive back her orthodox teacher. From his opening words he has been thought to have had in view the histories of Socrates and Sozomen, and to have written to supply their omissions and correct their mistakes (Valesius). The larger part of Theodoret of Cyrus' existant body of work still remains untranslated, and this lack provides a fragmented representation of his. xiv. Theodoret's name appears in the letters and other documents passing between the Oriental party at Ephesus and their representatives in Chalcedon, in which much was said and written in a bitter spirit (Labbe, vol. Theodoret speaks also of Diodorus of Tarsus as his teacher, but this can only have been through his writings. ); Harnack in Theol. Dioscorus and his partisans, having by brutal violence obtained the acquittal of Eutyches and the deposition of Flavian, Ibas, Irenaeus, and other sympathizers with Theodoret, proceeded on the third session to deal with him. Schulze and J. He often, instead of his own opinion, cites that of his great masters Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Origen. It was followed by another of a similar character, in ten orations, on Divine Providence, regarded by the best critics as exhibiting Theodoret's literary power in its highest form, as regards the careful selection of thoughts, nobility of language, elegance and purity of style, and the force and sequence of his arguments (Ceillier, p. 88, § 10). Used by Permission. God forbid. The coldness arising between him and John after John's reconciliation with Cyril had been much increased by John's uncanonical intrusion into the province of Alexander in the ordination of bishops. 3. Tillemont thinks that he probably did not live beyond 453. and some fragments of sermons, etc., given by Garnier ( Auctarium, ib. St. Jerome- Antiochus. This step he had repeatedly declared he would never take, and he now tried to satisfy the remonstrants with something short of it, but in vain. We will ship it separately in 10 to 15 days. 31). 114, 115). Retirement after Chalcedon, and Death. His parents held a high position at Antioch. His chief theological teacher, to whom be never refers without deserved reverence and admiration, was Theodore of Mopsuestia, "the great commentator," as he was called, the luminary and pride of the Antiochene school, but one who undoubtedly prepared the way for the teaching of Nestorius by his desire to provide, in Dorner's words, "for a free moral development in the Saviour's manhood." The only portions of the N.T. books having been burnt under Manasseh and other godless kings, or destroyed during the Captivity, Ezra was divinely inspired to rewrite them word for word on the return from the Captivity. The commentary on the Canticles was his earliest exegetical work. Theodoret after his return to Cyrus continued to oppose Cyril by speech and writing. The following facts about his life are gleaned mainly from his Epistles and his Religious History (Philotheos historia). Fab. Theodoret, Theodore and the Cappadocian Lexicon in the Expositio rectae fidei Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). Auto Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters. Sketches, iii. The Writings of Theodoret of Cyrus The first part discusses Theodoret’s exegetical (ch.1), dogmatic and controversial (ch.2), apologetic (ch.3), historical (ch.4), oratorical (ch.5) writings, his epistles (ch.6) and works falsely attributed to Theodoret (ch.7). (4) Homily spoken at Chalcedon in 431. Theodoret was one of the Oriental commissioners to the emperor Theodosius II. He had not long to wait for the confirmation of his worst fears. Wearied out, at last he yielded to their clamour and pronounced the test words, "Anathema to Nestorius, and to every one who denies that the Holy Virgin Mary is the mother of God, and who divides the one Son, the Only-begotten, into two Sons." ecclés. Includes a commentary on the twelve prophets. It is in 12 discourses, and furnishes a very able and eloquent defence of Christianity against the ridicule and ignorant accusations of pagan philosophers, written probably before 437. >From his own ecclesiastical revenues—which cannot have been small—he erected public porticos, two large bridges, and public baths, and, finding the city without any regular water-supply, constructed an aqueduct, and by a catchwater drain guarded the city against inundation from the marshes ( Epp. As throwing light on his personal history and character, and as helping us to understand the perplexed relations of the principal actors in that stormy period of theological strife and their various shades of theological opinion, their importance cannot be over-estimated. From the "Latrocinium" or "Robbers' Synod," at Ephesus (449) [DIOSCORUS; EUTYCHES], Theodoret was excluded by an imperial edict of Mark 4, unless summoned unanimously by the council itself (Labbe, iv. His writings against Cyril were incl… His inflexible metropolitan, Alexander, vehemently denounced as treason to the truth any approach to reconciliation with Cyril. Kelly. Theodoret's Commentary on the Psalms, 73-150 will be the next volume published in The Fathers of the Church series. He eulogizes the exact and comprehensive orthodoxy with which the Tome of Leo conveys the full mind of the Holy Spirit." Chapter 1. vi. Synod. 16, 79, 81, 145). Theodoret of Cyrus ~ 455 AD THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY General Index Kyros, Theodoretus von 393-466. It is not even certain whether he returned to his episcopal duties at Cyrrhus or remained in the quiet Apamean monastery, devoting himself to literary labours. 294). c. vii. Dioscorus was now master of the whole Eastern church; "il règne partout." Although his orthodoxy had been acknowledged by Leo and his restoration required by the emperor, the anti-Nestorian section would not hear of his recognition as a bishop until he had in express terms anathematized Nestorius. Tag: Theodoret of Cyrus Sola Scriptura in the Early Church. At this epoch, as Hefele remarks ( Hist. The outstanding instruction in various aspects of theological discourse I received from my professors at Marquette exceeded by far all my expectations. eccl. His writings may be divided roughly into I. Exegetical , on the Scriptures of O. and N. T. II. Those who adhered to the poisonous teachings of Nestorius deserved the flames. (2) Eranistes or Polymorphus, "a work of remarkable interest and of permanent value for theological students, to be read in connexion with the Tome of Leo and the definitions of Chalcedon" (Bright, Later Treatises of Athanas. Nor were his labours fruitless. 43, p. 1102), as well as to the patrician Anatolius ( Ep. 102 (Fathers of the Church Series) by Theodoret Cyrus (2001-02-28) All of these enjoyed Theodoret's unremitting and affectionate solicitude and frequent visits. 79, 81). His disgracefully violent language with regard to his former friend Nestorius—whom he stigmatizes as an instrument of Satan, a man who by his pride had plunged the church into disorders, and under the cloak of orthodoxy introduced the denial of the Divinity and of the Incarnation of the Only-begotten Son, and who at last met with the punishment he deserved, a sign of his future punishment—would warrant the charitable hope that this chapter has been erroneously ascribed to Theodoret. He explained his objections in a long letter to Acacius, which, however, opened a way for pacification by interpretations of some questionable points in his anathematisms which he refused to withdraw. The Letters. Contents and Character of the Extant Works. c. 40, 742). It is right to add, however, that Theodoret himself modestly disclaims any such merit. He denounces the iniquity of the Jews, who had excluded Daniel from the prophets and placed his book among the Hagiographa, because no prophet had so clearly predicted the advent of Jesus Christ, and the very time of His appearance. This volume completes the commentary on all the Psalms written by Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus, in the decade before the Council of Chalcedon held in 451 CE, a … Though now at liberty to go where he pleased, Theodoret preferred to remain in his monastery (Ep. Their authorship is doubtful; they have been ascribed to Athanasius or Maximus, but Garnier claims them for Theodoret. At that gathering Theodoret, accompanying his metropolitan, Alexander of Hierapolis, was among the earlier comers, anticipating the Oriental brethren, whose arrival he, with 68 bishops, vainly urged should be waited for before the council opened (Baluz. ed. 45, p. 1104). The critical period in the life of Theodoret was in connexion with the Nestorian controversy, through which he is chiefly known to us. This letter Theodoret regarded as orthodox, but irreconcilable with the anathematisms, which he still regarded as heretical. ... “Have thou ever in your mind this seal, which for the present has been lightly touched in my discourse, by way of summary, but shall be stated, should the Lord permit, to the best of my power with the proof from the Scriptures. Historical .—This class contains two works of very different character and of very different value: (1) the Ecclesiastical History , and (2) the Religious History. Theodoret's condemnation was evidently the chief purpose in summoning this infamous synod. Commentaries on the Prophets, Vol. 84). V. Epistolary .—No portion of Theodoret's literary remains exceeds in interest and value the large collection of his letters. Theodoret appears to have been mentioned by name in the edict of recall. III. by Baxter in 1847. His books were to be committed to the flames (ib. They engaged also never to abandon Nestorius. The interposition of Pulcheria and of the Western princesses was employed in vain. They give us a heightened esteem of Theodoret himself, his intellectual power, theological precision, warm-hearted affection, and Christian virtues. His own cause came on at the eighth session, Oct. 26. Covid Safety Membership Educators Gift Cards Stores & Events Help. 1141; 1190, 1197). For the nature of these documents and for the objections urged by Theodoret and his friends, which, with much that is illogical and inconsistent, contain much that is prima facie Nestorian see CYRILLUS. (3) Sermon on the Nativity of S. John Baptist . Schulze, vol. of Theodoret's works in Bohn's Lib. He is ready to anathematize all who assert that Christ was mere man, or who divide Him into two Sons, or who deny His Godhead. Though still holding back from reconciliation with Cyril, he was virtually the means of bringing about the long-desired peace. of T. Gaisford is pub. The whole subject presents a very curious intellectual problem. His chief desire was to witness the complete triumph of truth, and to convince others of the purity of his own teaching. His diocese was 40 miles square, and contained 800 distinct parishes, each with its church. p. 246, note, Ceillier, Aut. Featuring the Church Fathers, Catholic Encyclopedia, Summa Theologica and more. He calls it "a small and desolate city," with but "few inhabitants, and those poor," whose ugliness he had striven to redeem by costly buildings erected at his own expense ( Ep. Quantity. In Leviticus and Numbers he naturally adopts more of the allegorical method, regarding the whole Levitical ritual and the moral ordinances as typical of the sacrificial and mediatorial work of Christ, and of the new law He came to inaugurate. To do this (Theodoret writes to his friend Andrew of Samosata) would be to anathematize godliness itself. He played a pivotal role in several 5th-century Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. He wrote against Cyril of Alexandria's 12 Anathemas which were sent to Nestorius and did not personally condemn Nestorius until the Council of Chalcedon. It consists of three dialogues between the "Mendicant" ' Ερανίστης who represents Eutychianism, and Theodoret himself as Ὀρθόδοξος . He gives more original documents than either of his brother-historians, but is very chary of dates, and writes generally without sufficient chronological exactness. despatched in the name of John and his suffragans to Nestorius, exhorting him to give up his objections to the term "Theotokos," seeing that its true sense was part of the Church's faith, and entreating him not to throw the whole of Christendom into confusion for the sake of a word, has been with great show of probability ascribed to the practised pen of Theodoret. Of the piety of the emperor Gratianus. He took part also in the proceedings which ensued, when the "concilium" and the "conciliabulum" launched thunderbolts against each other, deposing and excommunicating. This desire he saw in part fulfilled. Theodoret and Chalcedon. Finding his growing isolation more and more intolerable, Theodoret invited the chiefs of the fast-lessening band of his sympathizers, Alexander, Andrew, and others, to take counsel at Zeugma, in reference to the union with Cyril, which had been accepted by John and earnestly pressed upon them by the combined weight of the ecclesiastical and civil power. Dioscorus, who seems to have regarded himself as "the lawful inheritor of Cyril's guardianship of anti-Nestorian orthodoxy," wrote to Theodoret's patriarch, Domnus, who c. 442 had succeeded his uncle John in the see of Antioch, informing him that Theodoret was creating a crypto-Nestorian party, practically teaching Nestorianism under another name and striking at "the one Nature of the Incarnate." Cyril found it impossible to accept the terms proposed in Theodoret's articles. Little as possible from that he probably did not believe, shall their unbelief make the of! 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